Fairtrade focuses on addressing the inequalities in the global value chain. They aim to overcome the unfair deal farmers around the world receive through their Fairtrade Premium, to support holistic local development, advocating for trade justice and giving farmers a voice. This premium is paid to co- operatives who democratically decide how to invest it – either by giving it to farmers or investing in local projects. Community development projects are generally funded either through this premium and/or external funding from governments or NGOs. In the cocoa sector, Fairtrade certi es cooperatives. They currently certify 108 cooperatives, 10 in Ghana and 98 in Côte d’Ivoire. Figures of the actual number of farms covered was not available.
Rainforest Alliance’s two main objectives are environmental conservation and protection and improved livelihoods and wellbeing of farmers. While their environmental focus is hugely important given the urgency of climate change, for the purpose of this report they were assessed only on their child labour and human trafficking strategies. Their certification is based on the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) Standard which has been used to certify 211,878 farms worldwide. 63.6% of Rainforest Alliance certi ed cocoa is grown in Côte d’Ivoire, while 14.9% is Ghanaian. Of the three certi ers, they have the most recently updated supplier code (the 2017 SAN Standard), which includes ‘zero tolerance’ on child labour, forced labour and human trafficking. They also have the most comprehensive remediation strategy of the three certifiers that will be introduced into the new SAN Standard.
UTZ focus on improving farmer livelihoods and enabling them to compete in the global market place. They do this through training workshops on topics such as agricultural practices, business skills and safety standards, with the goal of increasing productivity. They aim to make farming sustainable for farmers and for the planet. 100% of certi ed farmers partake in this training. An aspect of the training includes child protection and the importance of education. Their approach to monitoring child labour combines prevention, monitoring and remediation, which includes the appointment of a community liaison person in each cocoa growing community. They certify both farmer groups or co-operatives and individual farmers. Over 53% of UTZ certi ed cocoa comes from Côte d’Ivoire. 18% comes from Ghana. In 2015, there were more than 465,000 UTZ certi ed cocoa farmers – around 9% of the world’s cocoa farmers. This includes more than 193,000 in Côte d’Ivoire and more than 92,000 in Ghana.